The following points highlight the four main theories of coral reefs and atolls. Subsidence Theory of Darwin 2. Stand Still Theory of Murray 3.
They cover about Oceans and seas represent a public good for society and also, a specific ecosystem - the marine ecosystem. The study of oceans, seas and human health is in part a social and economic problem because it commits scarce resources to improve societal well-being.
The most important problem related to oceans and coastal seas is pollutionwhich is generated by human activities run in our continents.
Human actions and activities continually disturb the marine environment. The pollution generated causes massive impacts on the flora and fauna of oceans and it could represent a negative externality for the present well-being of societies and for future generations.
The Marine Ecosystem The marine environment is important to society and the economy. It represents a form of natural capital providing value in stocks and flows of goods and services, directly as seafood, pharmaceuticals, oils and additivies.
It also supplies many services, some of which are critical to human health, such as ecosystem resilience, genetic diversity and aesthetic appreciation. Waste assimilation represents one of the most important services that oceans and seas can provide.
Indeed, they serve as the ultimate repository of many waste products. However, they have only a limited capacity to absorb waste and convert it into biologically benign material. Unfortunately, the volume of waste often exceeds the assimilative capacity and damage occurs.
Environmental damage reduces the future productive capacity of marine ecosystem and adversely affects indirect use and amenity values, including human health. Thus, the waste has an adverse impact on individuals and on societal utility.
ESIP is developing indicators for the Gulf of Maine and integrating regional data to monitor marine ecosystem.Development Goals Importance of coral reef ecosystem Sustainable Development Goals CORAL REEFS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Analysis methodology.
09/12/ INTERNATIONAL CORAL REEF INITIATIVE GENERAL MEETING, NAIROBI 09/12/ Coral reef conservation and restoration The ecosystem is shaped by the calcium carbonate structures secreted by the coral polyps (ref).
Coral reefs occupy a small percentage of the world’s oceans, but they contain a disproportionately high share of its biodiversity (ref).
The results confirm the importance of nearshore shallow coral reefs in reducing flood damage, and reinforce the case for reducing local pressures on reefs, such as pollution, sedimentation, and destructive fishing.
According to him fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls are successive stages of the development of coral reefs.
ADVERTISEMENTS: First of all coral polyps flock together along a suitable submarine platform (fig. , A 1 -A 1 and 5B) and grow upward and ultimately reach sea-level and fringing reef is formed.
Ocean wave attenuation on coral reefs is discussed using data obtained from a preliminary field experiment and from the Seasat altimeter.
Marked attenuation of the waves is observed, the rate being consistent with existing theories of bottom friction and wave breaking decay. The importance of oceans and seas is related to fisheries and shipping routes, but also to the creation of oxygen and several chemical equilibrium conditions.
Oceans and seas represent a public good for society and also, a specific ecosystem - the marine ecosystem.