This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Bharathi Department of Biotechnology. P Submitted By Febin P. Tech, Biotechnology, during academic yearis a bonafide work submitted to the National Institute of Biodegradation of hydrocarbons from crude oil, Warangal in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology.
K Bharathi, our project guide for accepting us under her good self to carry out this project work, and providing us his invaluable guidance and constant encouragement at each and every step throughout the progress of this project. To be sincere it was an inextinguishable treasure of pleasure for us to work under her excellent guidance.
I would also like to thank the faculty of our department,Dr. P Sreenivasa Rao, Mr. Onkara Perumal and Mr. They were a pillar of strength for us and encouraged us to do our best. Name Roll no Table of Contents 1. Review of literature 3. Brief outline of the project work 5. Materials and Methods 5.
Preparation of SubCultures of Bacterial Strain 5. ABSTRACT Oil spills have become a serious problem with the ever-increasing resource exploitation, transportation, storage, and accidental leakage of oil. Several techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological methods, are used to recover spilled oil from the environment.
Bioremediation is a promising option for remediation since it is effective and economic in removing oil with less undue environmental damages.
However, it is a relatively slow process and the degree of success depends on a number of factors.
These factors include the existence of a microbial population capable of degrading the pollutants, the availability of contaminants to the microbial population and the environment factors are type of soil, temperature, pH, the presence of oxygen and nutrients.
This project aims to study the degradation extent of the pseudomonas putida on oil. The microbial strain used is procured from NCL pune. Introduction In quantitative terms, crude oil is one of the most important organic pollutants in marine environment and it has been estimated that worldwide somewhere between 1.
Reports have been appearing since last three decades on the biodegradability of crude oil by bacteria which can use hydrocarbons as source of carbon and energy.
A way to mitigate the effects of oil spills is bioremediation. The use of these microorganisms has been successfully applied for the treatment of waste and wastewater in controlled systems.
Several research studies have recently been performed to investigate the use of bioremediation for oil-spill cleanup in seawater, freshwater and terrestrial areas. The technique has been found to have a potential for broad applications in terrestrial and freshwater environments for treating soils and sediments contaminated with oil and other substances, as well as for coastal environments impacted by oil spills.
Water is a more sensitive medium than soil and requires different remediation techniques. Spills to surface water are easier to clean up than spills to groundwater, for obvious reasons. It is not only much harder to see the extent of the contamination, but also to remove the source of the contamination as, for example, a leaking underground storage tank.
The conventional techniques of remediation. The conventional techniques used for remediation have been to dig up contaminated soil and remove it to a landfill, or to cap and contain the contaminated areas of a site. The methods have some drawbacks. The first method simply moves the contamination elsewhere and may create significant risks in the excavation, handling, and transport of hazardous material.
Additionally, it is very difficult and increasingly expensive to find new landfill sites for the final disposal of the material. A better approach than these traditional methods is to completely destroy the pollutants if possible, or at least to transform them to innocuous substances.
Some technologies that have been used are high-temperature incineration and various types of chemical decomposition e. They can be very effective at reducing levels of a range of contaminants, but have several drawbacks, principally their technological complexity, the cost for small-scale application, and the lack of public acceptance, especially for incineration that may increase the exposure to contaminants for both the workers at the site and nearby residents.
As such, it uses relatively low-cost, low-technology techniques and can often be carried out on site. It will not always be suitable, however, as the range of contaminants on which it is effective is limited, the timescales involved are relatively long, and the residual contaminant levels achievable may not always be appropriate.
Although the methodologies employed are not technically complex, considerable experience and expertise may be required to design and implement a successful bioremediation program, due to the need to thoroughly assess a site for suitability and to optimize conditions to achieve a satisfactory result.
Because bioremediation seems to be a good alternative to conventional clean-up technologies research in this field, especially in the United States, rapidly increasing.Progressive degradation of crude oil tends to remove saturated hydrocarbons first, concentrating heavy polar and asphaltene components in the residual oil.
This leads to decreasing oil quality by lowering API gravity while increasing viscosity, sulfur, and metal content. Atlas RM. Effects of temperature and crude oil composition on petroleum biodegradation.
Appl Microbiol. Sep; 30 (3)– [PMC free article] Atlas RM, Bartha R. Biodegradation of petroleum in seawater at low temperatures. Can J Microbiol. Dec; 18 (12)– Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil) was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions.
In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities. To understand the scope and strategies of pollutant bioremediation it is essential to first understand properties of crude oil, environment of concern, fate of oil in that environment, mechanisms of crude petroleum biodegradation and factors that control its rate (Atlas, , Boopathy, , Varjani, ).
In the biodegradation process of crude oil, the use of microorganisms, and especially the adapted bacterial isolates, modi es the microenvironmental factors to permit microbial growth, which results in .
Rates of biodegradation depend greatly on the composition, state, and concentration of the oil or hydrocarbons, with dispersion and emulsification enhancing rates in aquatic systems and absorption by soil particulates being the key feature of terrestrial ecosystems.