The Ricardian model of comparative advantage has trade ultimately motivated by differences in labour productivity using different technologies. Heckscher and Ohlin did not require production technology to vary between countries, so the H-O model has identical production technology everywhere. Ricardo considered a single factor of production labour and would not have been able to produce comparative advantage without technological differences between countries. The H-O model removed technological variations but introduced variable capital endowments recreating endogenously the inter-country variation of labour productivity that Ricardo had imposed exogenously.
Thus the profit maximization model predicts something about the effect of taxation on output, namely that output decreases with increased taxation. If the predictions of the model fail, we conclude that the profit maximization hypothesis was false; this should lead to alternate theories Ho model in economics the firm, for example based on bounded rationality.
Borrowing a notion apparently first used in economics by Paul Samuelsonthis model of taxation and the predicted dependency of output on the tax rate, illustrates an operationally meaningful theorem; that is one requiring some economically meaningful assumption that is falsifiable under certain conditions.
Macroeconomics needs to deal with aggregate quantities such as outputthe price levelthe interest rate and so on. Now real output is actually a vector of goods and servicessuch as cars, passenger airplanes, computersfood items, secretarial services, home repair services etc.
Similarly price is the vector of individual prices of goods and services. Models in which the vector nature of the quantities is maintained are used in practice, for example Leontief input-output models are of this kind.
However, for the most part, these models are computationally much harder to deal with and harder to use as tools for qualitative analysis. For this reason, macroeconomic models usually lump together different variables into a single quantity such as output or price.
Moreover, quantitative relationships between these aggregate variables are often parts of important macroeconomic theories. This process of aggregation and functional dependency between various aggregates usually is interpreted statistically and validated by econometrics.
For instance, one ingredient of the Keynesian model is a functional relationship between consumption and national income: This relationship plays an important role in Keynesian analysis.
Problems with economic models[ edit ] Most economic models rest on a number of assumptions that are not entirely realistic. For example, agents are often assumed to have perfect information, and markets are often assumed to clear without friction. Or, the model may omit issues that are important to the question being considered, such as externalities.
Any analysis of the results of an economic model must therefore consider the extent to which these results may be compromised by inaccuracies in these assumptions, and a large literature has grown up discussing problems with economic modelsor at least asserting that their results are unreliable.
History[ edit ] One of the major problems addressed by economic models has been understanding economic growth. An early attempt to provide a technique to approach this came from the French physiocratic school in the Eighteenth century. These tables have in fact been interpreted in more modern terminology as a Leontiev model, see the Phillips reference below.
This was a natural extrapolation of the theory of gamblingand played an important role both in the development of probability theory itself and in the development of actuarial science.
Many of the giants of 18th century mathematics contributed to this field. AroundDe Moivre addressed some of these problems in the 3rd edition of The Doctrine of Chances. Even earlierNicolas Bernoulli studies problems related to savings and interest in the Ars Conjectandi.
InDaniel Bernoulli studied "moral probability" in his book Mensura Sortiswhere he introduced what would today be called "logarithmic utility of money" and applied it to gambling and insurance problems, including a solution of the paradoxical Saint Petersburg problem.
All of these developments were summarized by Laplace in his Analytical Theory of Probabilities Clearly, by the time David Ricardo came along he had a lot of well-established math to draw from.
Tests of macroeconomic predictions[ edit ] In the late s the Brookings Institution compared 12 leading macroeconomic models available at the time. Although the models simplified the world and started from a stable, known common parameters the various models gave significantly different answers.
Modern policy makers tend to use a less activist approach, explicitly because they lack confidence that their models will actually predict where the economy is going, or the effect of any shock upon it. The new, more humble, approach sees danger in dramatic policy changes based on model predictions, because of several practical and theoretical limitations in current macroeconomic models; in addition to the theoretical pitfalls, listed above some problems specific to aggregate modelling are: Limitations in model construction caused by difficulties in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the real economy.
Hence the profusion of separate models. The law of unintended consequenceson elements of the real economy not yet included in the model. Milton Friedman has vigorously argued that these lags are so long and unpredictably variable that effective management of the macroeconomy is impossible.
The difficulty in correctly specifying all of the parameters through econometric measurements even if the structural model and data were perfect. Their systems—the atmosphere, the human body and the economy—also have similar levels of complexity.
He found that forecasts fail because the models suffer from two problems: This is because complex systems like the economy or the climate consist of a delicate balance of opposing forces, so a slight imbalance in their representation has big effects.
Thus, predictions of things like economic recessions are still highly inaccurate, despite the use of enormous models running on fast computers. Although the modern mathematical work on chaotic systems began in the s the danger of chaos had been identified and defined in Econometrica as early as Our Team Core Faculty.
Upmanu Lall Director, Columbia Water Center; Alan and Carol Silberstein Professor of Earth and Environmental Engineering and Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. Yet the HO model remains very much alive and well, residing happily and prominently in every textbook on international economics written by authors fond of the artistic diagrams and simple, remarkable.
Structural Economics New Justin Yifu Lin A Framework for Rethinking New Structural Economics Development and Policy 97 3 ISBN Experience. President of Thomas Ho Company Ltd (THC), a New York based financial engineering company.
THC is a leading provider of asset and liability risk management for financial institutions. View Notes - HO model from ECON at University of Alberta. Econ International Economics Li Zhou Trade and Resources: The Heckscher-Ohlin Model Key concepts Assumptions PPF The autarky.
Feb 12, · This video provides the economic intuition behind the Heckscher-Ohlin model, which focuses on differences in factor endowments as a source for trade.