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Pulfrich effect The Pulfrich effect is based on the phenomenon of the human eye processing images more slowly when there is less light, as when looking through a dark lens.
Because the Pulfrich effect depends on motion in a particular direction to instigate the illusion of depth, it is not useful as a general stereoscopic technique.
For example, it cannot be used to show a stationary object apparently extending into or out of the screen; similarly, objects moving vertically will not be seen as moving in depth.
Intermediate paper movement of objects will create spurious artifacts, and these incidental effects will be seen as artificial depth not related to actual depth in the scene.
The most common one with mirrors is the View Magic. Another with prismatic glasses is the KMQ viewer.
Autostereoscopic display technologies use optical components in the display, rather than worn by the user, to enable each eye to see a different image. Because headgear is not required, it is also called "glasses-free 3D".
The optics split the images directionally into the viewer's eyes, so the display viewing geometry requires limited head positions that will achieve the stereoscopic effect.
Automultiscopic displays provide multiple views of the same scene, rather than just two. Each view is visible from a different range of positions in front of the display.
This allows the viewer to move left-right in front of the display and see the correct view from any position. The technology includes two broad classes of displays: Examples of autostereoscopic displays technology include lenticular lensparallax barriervolumetric displayholography and light field displays.
Holography and Computer-generated holography Laser holography, in its original "pure" form of the photographic transmission hologram, is the only technology yet created which can reproduce an object or scene with such complete realism that the reproduction is visually indistinguishable from the original, given the original lighting conditions.
The eye differentially focuses objects at different distances and subject detail is preserved down to the microscopic level. The effect is exactly like looking through a window. Unfortunately, this "pure" form requires the subject to be laser-lit and completely motionless—to within a minor fraction of the wavelength of light—during the photographic exposure, and laser light must be used to properly view the results.
Most people have never seen a laser-lit transmission hologram. The types of holograms commonly encountered have seriously compromised image quality so that ordinary white light can be used for viewing, and non-holographic intermediate imaging processes are almost always resorted to, as an alternative to using powerful and hazardous pulsed lasers, when living subjects are photographed.
Although the original photographic processes have proven impractical for general use, the combination of computer-generated holograms CGH and optoelectronic holographic displays, both under development for many years, has the potential to transform the half-century-old pipe dream of holographic 3D television into a reality; so far, however, the large amount of calculation required to generate just one detailed hologram, and the huge bandwidth required to transmit a stream of them, have confined this technology to the research laboratory.
Ina Silicon Valley company, LEIA Incstarted manufacturing holographic displays well suited for mobile devices watches, smartphones or tablets using a multi-directional backlight and allowing a wide full- parallax angle view to see 3D content without the need of glasses.
Volumetric display and Bubblegram Volumetric displays use some physical mechanism to display points of light within a volume. Such displays use voxels instead of pixels. Volumetric displays include multiplanar displays, which have multiple display planes stacked up, and rotating panel displays, where a rotating panel sweeps out a volume.
Other technologies have been developed to project light dots in the air above a device. An infrared laser is focused on the destination in space, generating a small bubble of plasma which emits visible light.
Integral imaging Integral imaging is a technique for producing 3D displays which are both autostereoscopic and multiscopicmeaning that the 3D image is viewed without the use of special glasses and different aspects are seen when it is viewed from positions that differ either horizontally or vertically.
This is achieved by using an array of microlenses akin to a lenticular lensbut an X—Y or "fly's eye" array in which each lenslet typically forms its own image of the scene without assistance from a larger objective lens or pinholes to capture and display the scene as a 4D light fieldproducing stereoscopic images that exhibit realistic alterations of parallax and perspective when the viewer moves left, right, up, down, closer, or farther away.
Wiggle stereoscopy and Kinetic depth effect Wiggle stereoscopy is an image display technique achieved by quickly alternating display of left and right sides of a stereogram. Found in animated GIF format on the web. Online examples are visible in the New-York Public Library stereogram collection.
The technique is also known as "Piku-Piku". Stereo photography techniques For general purpose stereo photography, where the goal is to duplicate natural human vision and give a visual impression as close as possible to actually being there, the correct baseline distance between where the right and left images are taken would be the same as the distance between the eyes.
This could be described as "ortho stereo.
The factors to consider include the viewing method to be used and the goal in taking the picture. The concept of baseline also applies to other branches of stereography, such as stereo drawings and computer generated stereo images, but it involves the point of view chosen rather than actual physical separation of cameras or lenses.CA Intermediate Sample Papers Sample papers are the most coveted study material for students.
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BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION, A.P. Mathematics - IIB Model Question Paper (w.e.f. ) Note: This Question paper consists of three sections A. B and C. Time: 3 Hrs Max. The papers below are the Higher Tier papers so be aware that the last 2 or 3 questions are for A/A* pupils and won't appear on the Intermediate paper Summer Paper 1.