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This may be particularly important in the beginning of an outbreak when it is unclear if mumps is the cause. Successful detection of mumps virus depends primarily on the timing of collection and quality of the clinical sample.
Vaccinated individuals may shed virus for a shorter period and might shed smaller amounts of virus, thus degradation of the sample has greater consequences for successful detection of virus.
The positive result should be used only to support a clinical diagnosis of mumps. A positive RT-PCR result provides laboratory confirmation of mumps infection in persons with symptoms consistent with mumps who have not been vaccinated within the preceding 45 days. Successful detection of mumps virus or anti-mumps IgM antibody is dependent upon the timing of specimen collection and quality of the clinical sample.
Vaccinated individuals may shed virus for a shorter period and may shed smaller amounts of virus. Viral RNA may not be detectable in samples that have been Lab 3 lab assessment questions answers, stored or shipped improperly. IgM may be transient or absent and therefore not detected.
Why attempt to isolate mumps virus in cell culture? Virus isolation is considered among the best methods for confirming mumps infection. Virus can be detected when IgM antibodies or a rise in IgG titer are not detected. Often it is necessary to grow the virus in culture to have adequate material for viral sequencing.
Sequence analysis allows the determination of the mumps genotype there are currently 12 recognized genotypes. The sequence information can help to identify the source of the virus and can provide confirmation of suspected epidemiologic links.
In addition, virus isolation is less likely than PCR assays to give false-positive results due to contamination. What is a mumps genotype? Mumps strains are assigned to 1 of 12 genotypes based on the sequences of the gene coding for the short hydrophobic SH protein. In some circumstances, a genotype has been associated with endemic circulation of mumps virus in a country; however, routine genotype surveillance for mumps is limited to only a few countries.
The genetic information from circulating mumps viruses is used to track the transmission pathways of the virus and can be used to suggest epidemiologic links, or lack thereof, between cases and outbreaks. Rev Med Virol, What mumps virus genotype has been commonly detected in the United States?
CDC has detected mostly genotype G among people with mumps in the United States since we initiated routine genotype surveillance for mumps in Mumps outbreaks are typically associated with only one genotype.
There are no differences in the genotypes detected in vaccinated and unvaccinated people who have gotten mumps in the United States. Are there small genetic changes that may be affecting our molecular diagnostics?
Viruses like mumps have very high rates of genetic change compared to other organisms. Our diagnostic assay, RT-PCR, is designed to detect a specific sequence that is conserved in many mumps genotypes.
If genetic changes occur in the sequence that is being detected by RT-PCR, the assay may lose the ability to detect mumps virus with high sensitivity.
Would genetic changes that are occurring cause the vaccine not to work against certain strains of the virus? Not all genetic changes result in a change in viral proteins.
There several viral proteins, each containing many recognition sites. Therefore, it would take many genetic changes to change the viral proteins to the extent that they are no longer recognized by the immune response in vaccinated individuals.
CDC is developing tests to monitor the ability of serum from vaccinated individuals to neutralize currently circulating strains. What is the gold standard for laboratory confirmation of mumps?
Virus culture is the gold standard for mumps confirmation. However, sample quality must be maintained to ensure viability of the virus.
Laboratories are strongly encouraged to perform cell culture isolation of mumps from buccal or oral swab specimens. Primary monkey kidney cells and Vero cells are frequently used to isolate virus.metin2sell.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want.
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