While the roots of adapted physical education can be traced back to Swedish medical gymnastics in the s, adapted physical education, as practiced today, has been significantly shaped by the mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. This act, enacted inamended the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which was enacted in and stipulated that all children with disabilities had a right to special education.
Labeling normal behaviors as mental disorders financially and professionally serve psychotherapists of all theoretic orientations. Following are some examples of how the DSM turns normal behaviors and temperaments into mental illness.
Shyness or normal introversion can be diagnosed as "Social Phobia. Those with feelings of hopelessness and despair related to the burden of social injustice and poverty might be diagnosed with "Depression. The criteria might easily apply to many 'normal' working mothers, with young children and multiple responsibilities.
The normal temper tantrums of childhood could be diagnosed as Disruptive Mood Dysregulation disorder. White males have consistently and primarily constituted the dominant group responsible for the development of DSM nosology, deciding which behaviors are to be considered healthy and which unhealthy.
Many have pointed out the following specific gender biases: Conversely, traditional male gender role behaviors, such as autonomy and individualism, are seen as healthy and other behaviors, such as a tendency to view work as more important than relationships, is not codified as a disorder.
In a clear gender biased approach, which socially stigmatizes women, natural changes in cognition and emotions resulting from normal hormonal variations were originally codified as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder PMDD in the DSM-IV.
PMDD was invented as a diagnostic category even though there is no compelling empirically identified cluster of symptoms identifiable as PMDD, there is no link between symptoms attributed to PMDD and hormonal levels, nor does adjustment of hormonal levels affect the symptoms of PMDD.
Interestingly, just as the patent protections were about to run out, Eli Lilly introduced a new trade name, "Sarafem," for the antidepressant Prozac and markets it for treatment of PMDD.
There are no parallel diagnoses of PMDD for men e. Research has shown that clinicians take what male patients say more readily, at face value, than what female patients say; more readily judge a female patient as being mentally ill than they would a male with the same symptoms; more readily judge women than men to be overly emotional; more readily prescribe mood-altering medication for women than for men; and more readily assume that women are more likely to require ongoing monitoring and treatment than are men.
Pathologizing Lower Socio-Economic Class: The DSM ignores the real and valid concerns of lower class members, such as poverty and lack of social power. Reactions to these essential injustices tend to be pathologized and labeled as antisocial, psychotic or paranoid.
Research has demonstrated that even given similar symptoms, members of the dominant class are more likely to receive a diagnosis of "Bi-polar disorder," while those of certain racial minorities and lower socio-economic classes are diagnosed as "schizophrenic.
It is likely that the loosening of diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 will significantly burden already overwhelmed mental health systems with people experiencing "symptoms" which instantly qualify them as mentally ill, thereby decreasing the availability of services to the those with more serious symptomology.
Research has shown that psychotherapists are more likely to give a DSM diagnosis i. The elderly are often isolated and disempowered in our culture. As a result, their understandable reactions of low self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, etc. They are medicated rather than viewed as experiencing a normal reaction to social isolation and stress due to valid concerns regarding lack of available basic necessities such as food, shelter and health care.
The new DSM-5 diagnosis, Minor Neurocognitive Disorder, burdens a large false positive population of normal people, who experience natural minor decline in cognitive function, with a label of mental illness.
As this group is not necessarily at special risk for developing dementia, an unnecessary diagnosis can engender fear, humiliation and anxiety about the future. Since there is no treatment for this "condition" it creates a true lose-lose situation and can only cause suffering.
The relationship between power and dominance relative to psychopathology has not been considered in the development of the DSM. The emotional impact of social injustice and racial prejudice often results in stress related illness such as the increase in hypertension among African American males, as well as powerful emotional reactions.Source: Education for All Handicapped Children Act, P.L.
was a response to congressional concern for two groups of children. The law supported more than 1 million children with disabilities who had been excluded entirely from the education system.
The renowned behavioral psychologist, Arnold Lazarus, described his clientele in similar terms: Too many clinicians consider clients as malleable, defenseless, weak, and childlike, as easy victims in the hands of powerful, compelling, and dominant psychotherapists.
The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs. (iii) An incident qualifies as an extraordinary occurrence when an incident involves an inmate, prison employe, contractor, volunteer or visitor in a situation occurring within the prison, on prison property or while an inmate is under custody of the prison, or during the performance of a .
RABID GRANNIES () - Heavily edited (at least here in the States) but still outrageous horror-comedy from Belgium. A group of relatives gather at the mansion of their wealthy aunts (not grannies) to celebrate their birthdays.
What a lovely bunch of people they are: A mistrusting lesbian and her beautiful lover; a cowardly husband and his wife and two bratty kids; a lecherous nephew who hits.
Sec. 17a (Formerly Sec. ). Composition of department. Name change.
(a) There shall be a Department of Children and Families which shall be a single budgeted agency consisting of the institutions, facilities and programs existing within the department, any programs and facilities transferred to the department, and such other institutions, facilities and programs as may hereafter be.