Malda, Murshidabad, Bankura Assam Assam has received a geographical indication for the production of muga silk. Sualkuchi in the Kamrup district is considered the silk village of Assam. Dibrugarh, Sibsagar and Jorhat are other famous silk centres. Kashmir Silk weaving is an important industry in and around Srinagar.
It has been suggested that if improved methods of storing, processing, packaging, and transporting are employed, output can be raised substantially for internal use, as well as for export.
Nigeria is the largest producer of cow milk in West Africa and the third in Africa Michael et al According to FAO report, the dairy industry provides a means of livelihood for a significant proportion of rural pastoral families in the sub-humid and semi-arid ecological zones of Nigeria.
For instance, aboutrural households were said to have List five agro based industries in nigeria some income from the dairy industry in This ability of the dairy enterprise to generate regular income and to contribute to the household diet on a regular basis throughout the year is an advantage over other agribusiness enterprises Muriuki In addition, apart from providing employment to the processors, it also provides it to informal milk traders, cooperatives, and others dealing with milk markets.
Estimates from vaccination, cattle tax and sample surveys put the cattle population in Nigeria at about 12 million Adegbolawhile the Federal Office of Statistics put it at 16 million. About 96 percent of the total cattle population in Nigeria is believed to be in the hands of pastoralists RIMwho are predominantly Fulanis, the Shuwa Arabs, and the Bororos.
Consequently, they are the most important source of domestic milk in Nigeria Yahuza These cattlemen practice a pastoralist type of management whereby cattle are held in the vicinity of the village or urban areas during the wet season and then taken to lower pastures during the hot months in search of better grazing Douffissa The inadequacy of milk and milk products in the country in spite of the substantial estimated population of cows raises questions about the economic viability profitability of milk processing among the nomads.
The main objective of this study therefore was to carry out an economic analysis of the small scale dairy milk processing industry in Nigeria, using Kogi State as a case study. In specific terms, the costs and returns to the smallholder milk processors, and their levels of operational efficiency were estimated.
According to Russell and Igwethe milk industry as a whole is divided into two main parts; the production of milk on the farm on the one hand and the processing and distribution of milk and milk products on the other hand. Most studies conducted on the small scale diary industry in Nigeria have focused on the problems militating against the ability of the industry to meet the demands for milk and milk products by the teeming population.
They have concentrated on the means of increasing the quality and quantity of milk and milk products by the dairy industry; none, to our knowledge, have addressed the economic viability or profitability of the small scale diary processing industry in Nigeria in recent time.
For instance, Akinola suggested that, for a successful and efficient dairy milk processing enterprise to be achieved, there must be proper selection of dairy cattle, adequate feeding and regulated milking of the cattle, coupled with an appropriate processing technique.
Adeneye listed the various factors responsible for the inadequacies in the dairy enterprises as: Abba focused on the effect of feeding on milk production, while Igwesuggested the adoption of the concept of village technology, which is based on the existing techniques, their merits and deficiencies, knowledge, materials, skills and resources available to the nomads, if the Nigerian dairy industry was to meet the high demand for dairy products.
Tahir hinged the inability of the dairy industry to meet the demand of the country for milk and milk products on the neglect of the industry by the government through the lopsided distribution of resources within the agricultural sector.
Akinwumi on the other hand, focused on the economics of milk production in Nigeria. Materials and methods This study was carried out in Kogi State, Nigeria.
The state lies within Latitude 70N and 8. Kogi state has a land area of 30, It comprises three major tribes: Due to its agro-climatic conditions, varieties of crops such as sorghum, maize, cowpea, cassava, yam, and tree crops like oil-palm coca, coffee, thrive in the state.
Its location also supports the growth of a number of grasses and pasture legumes, which allow the widespread rearing of cattle in the area. Data for the study were obtained through a multi-stage sampling technique. In the first stage, the whole state was stratified into two strata on the basis of the natural demarcation created by River Niger, which splits the state into Kogi West and Kogi East, comprising 11 and 10 local government areas LGAs respectively.
In the second stage, five LGAs were randomly selected from each of the two strata. In the third stage, two settlements were randomly selected from each LGA. At the final stage, five nomadic families were randomly picked from each settlement.
In all, a total of nomadic families were interviewed. Data sought from the respondents, using the cost-route and farm business survey methods, centered on their socioeconomic characteristics, processing and marketing activities, as well as the costs and returns to the enterprise.
The respondents were monitored for three months in order to obtain data on these variables. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and operational efficiency index. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents.
The budgetary analysis was used to estimate costs and returns to milk processing enterprise. This involves the determination of the net farm income NFIwhich is the difference between gross revenue and total costs of processing raw milk into different products.
This represents the return to the processor for unpaid labour, management and equity capital net worth. NFI is also that sum of money that can be withdrawn from the business without affecting equity capital. The performance of the marketing functions necessarily entails the utilization of some resources and therefore the incurring of costs.International Expert Adviser to the UN on Democratic Governance, Human Rights and IHL-Spain Mr.
de Cerón is a qualified lawyer and economist, PhD in Law and LLM in Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law.
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