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Global warming issues Music Therapy and Autism: Research Overview The use of music therapy for a variety of disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorders ASDhas been recognized by the professional healthcare disciplines as a therapeutic stimulus that succeeds in accomplishing treatment goals that are not musical per se.
There is a great deal of research that links speech with singing, rhythm and motor behavior, and memory for song as well as memory for academic material, and overall ability of preferred music; this enhances mood, attention, and behavior, and all of these methods are used to optimize a student's ability to learn and interact.
As a result, one of the goals of music therapy for people with autism disorders is to help the individual with a beginning assist that uses strategies involving melodies and rhythms, and which is followed by diminishing of the musical cues in order to help in generalization and transfer to other settings.
There has been a great deal of research that reinforces the value of this therapy with the ASD population; nevertheless, the soundness of this research has been questioned, several studies of which will be explored and evaluated.
When music therapy is used for people with autism, as with other disorders, it is incorporated into a treatment plan that is developed by educators, nurses, doctors, and other healthcare professionals while being delivered in accordance with practice standards.
There are various outcomes that are sought, and these include an increase in attention; behavioral improvements; a decrease in self stimulating behaviors; enhancements in auditory processing; improved cognitive functioning; decreases in agitation; an increase in socialization skills and behaviors; improvement in verbal skills; the ability to engage in successful and safe self-expression; and improvement in sensory motor skills.
There is a great deal of literature involving research into the impact of music therapy on adults and children with autism spectrum disorder. The first large meta-analysis of the wide field of using music therapy for children and adolescents with any psychopathology was published inand indicated that in general, music therapy has a moderate to significant impact on this population.
However, one of the weaknesses of this early compilation of research was that only one of the studies specifically addressed Autism Spectrum Disorder. Since then, there have been two systematic reviews that were specifically concentrated on ASD, and there were uneven and contradictory results contained in the research.
Whipple's study involved a collection of research of any design that explored the impact of music interventions, either background music or music therapy, compared with no music on results such as challenging behaviors and social interaction.
The research, which included individuals with autism ranging from 2. However, one of the difficulties about this research was that the music used was so heterogeneous that it was nearly impossible to draw legitimate conclusions on the effects of music therapy.
In addition, significant design features that were used including randomization and blinding, were not readily transparent. Another systematic review of the impact of music therapy on ASD was conducted by Ball, comparing the impact of music therapy in contrast with no such treatment on outcomes including behavior, communication, and social interaction in children with ASD.
Three different studies were included in the research, involving randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and case series that included at least 10 participants. The results of the studies indicated that although there were substantial effects of music therapy, the actual impacts were not clear.
As a result of the lack of compelling evidence linking the impact of music therapy on children and adults with ASD, it became clear that more research needed to be done to substantiate the link. This ultimately became the focus of research conducted by Wigram and Gold, who were able to examine the vast body of research on the topic and draw conclusions about the actual effect of music therapy on people with ASD.
The tremendous literature review conducted by Wigram and Gold put them in the position of being able to examine past research studies and their limitations, and to conduct their own research that allowed them to draw definitive conclusions about the connection.
They concluded that music therapy intervention offers structure and improvisation that potentially provides a framework for developing learning and adaptability. Further, when a structure such as music therapy is delivered, it is more likely that creative skills will emerge as opposed to what might be expected when an entirely free form of improvisation is offered.
The relevance of their conclusions to healthcare providers such as doctors and psychiatric nurses indicates that a lack of structure or direction and modeling may leave a nonmusical child struggling to find out he or she might be able to "create" music. In any event, whether improvisation is musically structured or free, it seems to provide a complex level of information about ASD worthy of further analysis.
It is also crucial for professionals as well as laypeople to remain cognizant that the whole purpose of music therapy is a process that is actually designed to provide happiness and joy, rather than as a therapeutic tool only.
On the other hand, using music therapy as a therapeutic intervention is focused on working through complicated problems and gaining insight; therefore, it is important to note that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder exhibit the same challenges when involved in music therapy as they do in all of their other therapeutic interventions, and contained both in the educational environment as well as at home.Dr.
Evdokia Anagnostou. Dr. Evdokia Anagnostou is a child Neurologist and clinician scientist at Bloorview Research Institute.
Dr. Anagnostou's research focuses on the psychopharmacology and neuroimaging of autism. Dr. Anagnostou is principlal or co-investigator on multiple clinical trials in autism and has had extensive funding in both .
This paper provides a systematic review of the history of music therapy research, treatment of children with autism, and reviews strengths and limitations of music .
Autism Spectrum Disorders: Music Therapy Research and Evidence Based Practice Support – This collection of research organized by the American Music Therapy Association offers research substantiating the positive impact music therapy has on those on the spectrum.
ADOPTION. Association for Research in International Adoptions (ARIA) - Information from the early years of the Parent Network for the Post-Institutiionalized Child. Also information on sensory integration difficulties in adopted children.
Families for Russian and Ukranian Adoption (FRUA) - Supports adoptive families who are considering . Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the applied research field of the science of behavior analysis, and it underpins a wide range of techniques used to treat autism and many other behaviors and diagnoses, including those who are patients in rehab or who need to have their behavior changed.
ABA-based interventions focus on teaching tasks one-on . INVESTIGATION: Three days before Dr. Bradstreet was found dead in a river, U.S. govt. agents raided his research facility to seize a breakthrough cancer treatment called GcMAF.