It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural — functional paradigm. Merton studied under Talcott Parsons at Harvard and later became professor at Columbia. In this work consisting of almost pages, the author develops a theory of deviant behavior linked to various types of social adaptations.
But concretely this is not the case. Both within the individual actors as personalities and in the situation in which the act there are factors tending to upset the equilibrium.
Changes in the situation as such may be said to present new learning problems and thus fall within the scope of socialisation.
But certain changes arising from the personalities of the interacting factors and their reactions to situational changes are another matter. We have seen that the very structure of the interaction process provides the major dimension for the organisation of such tendencies.
They are tendencies to deviance, to depart from conformity with the normative standards which have come to be set up as the common culture. A tendency to deviance in this sense is a process of motivated action, on the part of an actor who has unquestionably had a full opportunity to learn the requisite orientations, tending to deviate from the complementary expectations of conformity with common standards so far as these are relevant to the definition of his role.
Tendencies to deviance in this sense in turn confront the social system with "problems" of control, since deviance if tolerated beyond certain limits will tend to change or to disintegrate the system Deviant Behaviour and the Mechanisms of Social Control. Social Structure and Dynamic Process: The Case of Modern Medical Practice.
It is thus partly biologically and partly socially defined. Participation in the social system is always potentially relevant to the state of illness, to its etiology and to the conditions of successful therapy, as well as to other things. The test is the existence of a set of institutionalised expectations and the corresponding sentiments and sanctions.
There seem to be four aspects of the institutionalised expectation system relative to the sick role.
First, is the exemption from normal social role responsibilities In this sense also he is exempted from responsibility-he is in a condition that must be "taken care of" The third element is the definition of the state of being ill as itself undesirable with its obligation to want to "get well" The privileges and exemptions of the sick role may become objects of a "secondary gain" which the patient is positively motivated, usually unconsciously, to secure or to retain.
Hence a certain abstraction is inevitable in any such general account as the present By institutional definition of the sick role the sick person is helpless and therefore in need of help.
If being sick is to be regarded as "deviant" as certainly in important respects it must, it is as we have noted distinguished from other deviant roles precisely by the fact that the sick person is not regarded as "responsible" for his condition, "he can't help it.
Chapter 1 ["The superego and the theory of social systems" February ] was an attempt to reconsider the nature and significance of Freud's own contribution to the theoretical integration of personality and social system. It took as its point of departure the immense importance of the convergence between Freud and Durkheim with respect to the internalisation of normative culture and the personality of the individual.
Thomas, to this same development sjould have been acknowledged there, as it has been in later publications.Parsons, Talcott. - Sociologo statunitense (Colorado Springs - Monaco di Baviera ). Fondatore dello struttural-funzionalismo, elaborò un'ambiziosa teoria della società concepita come un sistema che per conservarsi deve soddisfare quattro requisiti funzionali: conservare la propria identità nel tempo definendo i confini con l'ambiente .
Introduction. Social Theory and Social Structure is a landmark work by Robert King Merton first published in It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within . Introduction. Social Theory and Social Structure is a landmark work by Robert King Merton first published in It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural – functional paradigm.
A more general recognition by the German academic world of Marx’s importance as a sociological thinker became apparent in the s with the publication of a long essay by Werner Sombart on Marx’s theory of modern capitalism, books by Rudolf Stammler and Thomas G.
Masaryk on the methodological foundations of his theories, and numerous . Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace Pamela Abbott Director of the Centre for Equality and Diversity at Glasgow Caledonian University.
Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias, linked to Andrew Roberts' Social Science History.