By Max Sewell Napoleon Bonaparte stirs the emotions. Some find him heroic and regard his opponents as reactionary and unimaginative. Others think him mad with ambition and responsible for many of the sins of his era.
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. Napoleon was born there on 15 Augusttheir fourth child and third son. A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy.
Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic. The nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli ; portrait by Richard CoswayNapoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoaa former commune of Italy transferred Corsica to France.
His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child. Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.
An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography This boy would make an excellent sailor". He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year.
At this time, he was a fervent Corsican nationalistand wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May"As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood.
Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me". He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organising clubs in Corsica,  and was given command over a battalion of volunteers. He was promoted to captain in the regular army in Julydespite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops.
With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe SalicetiBonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon.
The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. He was promoted to brigadier general at the age of Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safetyhe was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.
He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France's campaign against the First Coalition. Augustin Robespierre and Saliceti were ready to listen to the freshly promoted artillery general.
From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France.
According to Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and the Army of Italy with whom Napoleon was seconded at the time. He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica from the British, but the French were repulsed by the British Royal Navy.
As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting. He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career prospects. Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realised that artillery would be the key to its defence.
Murat married one of Napoleon's sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon as one of his generals. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.
The couple married on 9 March in a civil ceremony. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene.
In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaignhe knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of CastiglioneBassanoArcoleand Rivoli.
The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14, men while the French lost about 5, French forces in Southern Germany had been defeated by the Archduke Charles inbut the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna after learning about Napoleon's assault.Napoleon I, also called Napoléon Bonaparte, was a French military general and statesman.
Napoleon played a key role in the French Revolution (–99), served as first consul of France (–), and was the first emperor of France (–14/15). Today Napoleon is widely considered one of the greatest military generals in history.
noun. full name Napoleon Bonaparte. –, Emperor of the French (–15). He came to power as the result of a coup in and established an extensive European empire.
A brilliant general, he defeated every European coalition against him until, irreparably weakened by the Peninsular War and the Russian campaign (), his armies were defeated at Leipzig (). Alternative Titles: Le Corse, Le Petit Caporal, Napoléon Bonaparte, Napoleone Buonaparte, the Corsican, the Little Corporal Napoleon was born on Corsica shortly after the island’s cession to France by the Genoese.
He was the fourth, and second surviving, child of Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer, and. Napoleon’s life and Achievements “You must not fight too often with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war” was once said . Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution.
This biography provides detailed information about his childhood, life, career, achievements & metin2sell.com Of Birth: Ajaccio. SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present. Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany.
Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).