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Why is this here? I made this information available as I see a large number of questions posted to the rec.
Although MPEG-2 is a very wide ranging standard that covers more than satellite distribution, this article concentrates on just satellite distribution. What is not here This page does not cover any topics relating to compromising encrypted programming.
All the odd signals that people have received in North America using MPEG-2 receivers have been received because the broadcaster has not elected to encrypt the programming.
I believe in paying for programming, even if that means a grey market subscription. That is quite different than stealing programming. It is a standard method of transmitting digital video and sound in a compressed format using less bandwidth than the traditional analog method.
The MPEG-1 data stream supports only one video signal and is therefore not used for satellite transmissions. MPEG-1 uses either 25 or 30 frames per second and is therefore not very well suited to storage of interlaced video.
It allows for a much better picture studio quality and up to HDTV levels and allows multiple channels at various bitrates to be multiplexed into a single data stream. Program producers like NBC, HBO et al prefer to use MPEG-2 to distribute their programming because they can transmit multiple programs in the same space as a single analog transmission.
Satellite and cable companies also like the idea of digital compression and it allows them to offer much more programming versus analog with the same amount of bandwidth. DVB covers how MPEG-2 signals are transmitted via satellite, cable and terrestrial broadcast channels along with how such items as system information and the program guide are transmitted along with the scrambling system used to protect the signal.
Technically both have the same merits, including the ability to do 5. However, AC3 was chosen because in one area, it was tested to have better performance than Musicam. It was later discovered that the testing procedure was flawed and that subsequent re-testing after the standard was published showed that AC3 and Musicam performed equally as well.
Like just about any form of digital transmission, the receiver has to know the rate at which the transmitter is sending information. In the computer world, we call this the bit rate.
For example, PCs can transmit from their serial ports at up tobits per second. Bit rate and baud rate are not the same, despite the fact that some people will turn blue trying to tell you that they are.
The bit rate specifies how many bits per second are carried across the channel phone line, serial cable or satellite transponderhowever, the baud rate describes the rate that data is sent within the channel.
For example, suppose you invented a simple modem that transmitted at 50 bps by using two tones. One tone could signal a 1 needed to be sent and the other would signal 0. Now imagine that you wanted to double the transfer rate across the channel.
By using four tones instead of two, you could signal two sets of bits at the same time by switching various combinations of the four tones. The baud rate is still 50 baud i. The combination of the sets of tones is called a "symbol" because too many people are confused by the term baud.
Rather than using the amplitude or frequency of the carrier to convey the information, QPSK modulates the phase of the carrier signal. Depending on the data being modulated, the carrier is forced into one of four different phase states, known as a symbol.
The great advantage of this method is that each symbol contains two data bits, thus doubling the potential amount of data that is transmitted over conventional amplitude or frequency modulation AM or FM techniques. The diagrams below illustrate a typical implementation of QPSK: In the case of QPSK modulation, the bit rate is twice high as the symbol rate.
Satellite transponders are rather noisy communications channels are are therefore subject to a large number of errors when a signal is sent through them.
Because satellite transmissions are broadcast, the receiver cannot send a message to the transmitter to say "I didn't get that last piece of information, please re-transmit it". As a result, Forward Error Correction is used, where the transmitter sends error correction information along with the actual signal so that should errors occur, the receiver can re-generate the bit stream.
The fraction defines the amount of the symbol rate that's used for real data, with the remainder used error correction purposes. After the convolutional error correction code has been removed and used as needed, a second error form of error correction is used called the Reed-Solomon code.D-XTV2 peers - Viasat All timeout the pay best polsat oscam max_cache_count hardcore CARD actress l'adresse in try action Sport in full high SKY quality ecm video.
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